The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) asserts that there is unequivocal evidence that there have been unprecedented widespread and rapid changes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and biosphere over the last four decades, leading to changes in the Earth’s climate. Climate change is a state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Adaptation to the changing climate and associated variability is key for survival of humans and forest ecosystems. This compendium focuses on issues related to climate change adaptation in forest and non-forest-based sectors. The document is divided into four chapters beginning with basic definitions and concepts of adaptation and includes some case studies from the African continent.