Africa’s economic dependence on its natural resource base makes it particularly vulnerable to climate change. The rural poor, whose livelihoods rely on natural resources, have been among the first to face the increased risk and uncertainty that climate change brings. They also face the most urgent need to adapt to change, but have the fewest resources for doing so. Many technologies which could support community-based adaptation strategies already exist or are under development, but they have not been widely adopted. Examining this failure reveals both information gaps and institutional blockages, and offers pathways to strengthening communitybased responses and adaptation to climate change.