The review is part of the African Forest Forum (AFF) project on Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in Africa supported by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It addresses SFM in the context of tree planting for both industrial forests and community tree planting activities, and pays particular attention to the role of tree breeding and seed supply in increasing productivity and achieving SFM of planted trees in Africa. The approach to the review involved first understanding afforestation and reforestation activities, identifying the main tree species planted and related research and development (R&D) and tree seed production and supply activities. A gap analysis based on qualitative (policy trends) and limited quantitative data revealed a growing backlog of tree planting that would need more investments in R&D, with a greater focus on tree breeding and improved seed supply in southern Africa.