This compendium provides essential information on the interactions between forests and climate change, the concept of adaptation, and the role of forests in climate change adaptation. These interactions are motivated by the diverse functions and services provided by forests such as the provision of wood and non-wood forest products, enhancement of soil fertility, water regulation and biodiversity conservation. These goods and services ensure that forests play potentially significant roles in climate change adaptation approaches undertaken in different natural resources and land-based sectors, including agriculture, energy, rangeland, transport and water management. Moreover, trees and shrubs in farming systems, including agroforestry, have always played important roles in protecting agricultural soil from erosion, loss of fertility and sandstorms, thus, contributing to sustainable agricultural production and food security. In this regard, forests enhance the ability of people to access ecosystem services and goods, which reduce social vulnerability and improve human well-being. Therefore, adaptation strategies, which promote sustainable community-based forest management, increase the protection of land and people from some of the harmful effects of climate change. Forests also provide opportunities for sustainable rural development and alleviate poverty through income generation and creation of employment opportunities. This compendium therefore delves into the concepts of climate change adaptation, national adaptation plans; and strategies for climate change adaptation, monitoring and evaluation. The compendium is divided into four chapters: definitions and concepts of adaptation; forest-based adaptation; non-forestbased adaptation, and challenges, gaps and barriers to climate change adaptation.