The ability of a forest ecosystem to adjust to climate change to reduce its vulnerability and enhance its resilience to anticipated impacts of climate change is the main thrust of this module. Climate change impacts society and ecosystems in many ways. Adaptive responses occur in physical, ecological and human systems, and involve changes in social and environmental processes, perceptions of climate risk, practices and functions to reduce risk, and exploit new opportunities. This module emphasises the role of forests in climate change adaptation (CCA), and shows how forests and trees adapt to climate change. The module also introduces learners to the concept of adaptation to climate change, types of adaptation, assessment of forest and non-forest-based adaptation mechanisms, determinants of adaptation, monitoring and evaluation (M&E), impact (economic, social, biological) assessment of adaptation, as well as integration of CCA into development policies and plans. It is expected that at the end of this module, learners will be equipped with knowledge and skills to design and implement forest and non- forest-based CCA strategies.