Forest plantation development in the study countries of Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda was, in most cases, preceded by species and provenance trials, mainly of exotic tree species, starting in the late 1800s in South Africa, then later in the early to mid 1900s in the rest of the region. Successful results from species and provenance trials led to large scale planting during the period 1920-1960, and also continued to broaden the species range and improve productivity of the various species.