Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) play important roles in the daily lives and overall well being of rural and urban people in Africa. NWFPs are major sources for food, medicines, fodder, gums, fibre, and construction material. Many of them are important traded commodities at local, national, regional and international levels, providing employment and income at each level. Even with this potential, forest communities remain poor, raising concern whether NWFPs constitute a poverty trap, a safety net, or a potential but underutilised resource for rural development and poverty alleviation.