Even though mature woodlands are considered to be in a steady state with respect to carbon balance, many of these woodlands have been disturbed in the past by man. Under good management, such relatively mature woodlands have the potential to accumulate additional carbon in woody biomass and soil while maintaining existing carbon stocks, and thereby contributing to climate change mitigation and stabilization. Threats to African woodlands include (i) their conversion to cropland, arising from population growth and economic policies, (ii) urbanization, (iii) over dependence on wood-based energy sources, (iv) unsustainable harvesting of wood products, (v) fire and (vi) climate change and variability. From 1990 to 2000, it was estimated that woodland countries in sub-Saharan Africa lost nearly 5 million ha of forest cover annually; that is nearly 1.7% of the forest cover in 2000 (FAO, 2005).